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Anal cancer is a cancer which arises from the anus, the distal opening of the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms may include bleeding from the anus or a lump near the anus. Other symptoms may include pain, itchiness, or discharge from the anus. Squamous cell carcinomas in the anal canal have grown beyond the surface and into the deeper layers of the lining (as opposed to carcinoma in situ which is only in the surface cells). Cloacogenic carcinomas (also called basaloid or transitional cell carcinomas ) are a type of squamous cell cancer. It is increased in hiv infection and in patients taking immunosuppressive drugs for hiv infection. Women with a history of cervical cancer or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (cin) are also known to have a greater risk for anal cancer 3 . This variant of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal region arises from the entodermal-ectodermal junctional zone of the anal canal at or above the dentate line. Basaloid carcinomas have histological characteristics which resemble basal cell carcinoma of the skin, in particular the presence of palisading of the nuclei at the periphery of the clumps of tumour cells, but are potentially. The most recent version of tnm staging of anal cancer is as follows. Anal cancer treatment options include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, andor surgery. Get detailed information about newly diagnosed and recurrent anal cancer and treatment in this summary for clinicians. Anal cancer is a rare form of cancer that affects the tissues of the anus. We explain what you need to know about its causes and how its diagnosed. Anal cancer treatment options include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, andor surgery. Get detailed information about newly diagnosed and recurrent anal cancer including risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment in this expert-reviewed summary.